What is phantom power and what does it do?

  Phantom power is the most common type of power supply for condenser microphones.

  There are 3 types of phantom power available, using voltages of 12, 24 and 48 volts.

  12 and 24-volt power supply is common in battery-powered consoles, which are subject to many significant limitations due to power problems, many early consoles only supply 12 or 18-volt phantom power and very little current. Battery-powered 12- and 24-volt consoles such as Shure's FP33 are still in use today.
  The studio consistently provides 48-volt phantom power for each microphone input separately. Because these consoles are using utility power, so there is no limit to the actual supply of phantom power. Many studio-oriented condenser microphones are also designed for 48 volts. In fact, they only reach the standard current when powered by 48 volts.
  Even when the mixer is able to provide 48-volt phantom power for each microphone, attention should still be paid to the current supplied. Some mixers do not have the ability to provide 12 mA for each microphone, and when you connect some microphones, the phantom power can no longer maintain sufficient current and voltage, or even more serious consequences. This type of unpleasantness often appears on cheap or battery-powered mixers. As a precaution, you should be aware of the current required by each microphone and the total phantom power current that the mixer can supply.

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